Question 1. Indicate the difference among classification survey, registration survey and under writers survey; and enumerate the important checks performed by the classification society on a ship.

Question 2. “ During the last three decades Multi-modal Transportation has made rapid progress”. While commenting on the statement explain how has the multi-modal transportation benefitted the movement of merchandise through innerland.

Question 3. Briefly comment on the following:

a. Low productivity of labour result in delays in carrying out the cargo work.

b. Charterers pay only freight but , in certain cases, they may also be required to bear stevedoring expenses.

c. Normally oral agreement are binding on the ship owners and the charterers who negotiate and fix vessels.

d. Logistics variable and costs interact in a complex and indirect way.

Question 4. Write short notes on the following:

a. Auxiliary services

b. Open Sky policy

c. Arbitration

d. Leasing

Question 5. Distinguish between the following:

a. Export order Vs. Import order

b. Flat Pack container Vs. open top containers

c. Free In and Gross Out Vs. Gross In and Free Out

d. Logistics Vs. E-logistics

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